It is necessary to modernize the legal framework for the debts of the population. The authorities daily process a huge number of appeals and problems of citizens in this area. The corresponding bill has already been adopted in the first reading. About this in his column for FAN said the deputy of the State Duma Artem Kiryanov.
Strengthening supervision over creditors. Column by Artem Kiryanov
The other day, we adopted in the first reading a bill that proposes to extend the federal state supervision carried out by the Federal Bailiff Service to the activities of credit and microfinance organizations that repay overdue debts of individuals.
The representative of the Ministry of Justice said in the State Duma that over the last reporting period, 32,000 complaints were received related to the return of overdue debts – that is, those who collect debts from them. And 80% of these complaints come from banks and microfinance organizations. We got collection agencies to stop giving people nightmares, although some facts remain and account for 20% of complaints.
The rest needs regulation. The FSSP will maintain a register of such credit and microfinance organizations, and all these structures will be limited in their activities: so that there is no pressure on the debtor, a huge number of calls, so that third parties are called. There will be an obligation to record all messages – both voice and text, in the process of communicating with the debtor. An “intelligent agent” will appear – let’s connect artificial intelligence. Direct interaction with the debtor will not be allowed if the debtor does not agree to this.
Mortgage, in a certain sense, is the most “calm” area. But I would like to emphasize that the situation can change very quickly. God forbid, of course. Remember when we had a collapse in foreign exchange mortgages due to the exchange rate? When the state had to take on the problems of borrowers who found themselves in a difficult life situation. That is, physically participate and give out money. I myself was a member of such an interdepartmental commission, which included representatives of the State Duma, the Central Bank, the Public Chamber, and the government. And the ombudsman Tatyana Moskalkova played a huge role in the fact that people who found themselves in a difficult life situation received money from the state. The commission dealt with a number of issues aimed at ensuring that people do not lose their homes. What was the main task of this working body? We analyzed only atypical cases in which there were not enough simple grounds for debt restructuring. In my opinion, we had 24 thousand such cases. What was the main thing for us? So that the loan/collateral ratio is at least 1:1. So that a person who could no longer pay his obligations and who was forced to rent out his housing should not remain indebted to the bank.
This situation is very worrying. I would like to warn everyone. Today, people are being lured into the “loan-collateral” trap. There are commercials: “take a mortgage at 0%”. It is quite clear that with such percentages it all resembles cheese in a mousetrap. You will simply overestimate the price of the property. Accordingly, at the price at which you pay a mortgage, you will never sell this object. The regulator, represented by the Central Bank, sees this problem. When we had the head of the Central Bank in the State Duma Elvira Nabiullina, she promised that a mechanism would be prepared by the regulator to limit such things. I expect next year the introduction of a bill that would “cool” this market and would not allow the emergence of new problem mortgages. And I would not allow a situation in which our mortgages will generally come to a standstill. Because people will have the option to take out a mortgage based on real financial data. When a person understands what interest rate he can realistically afford, based on his own capabilities. Or you can take the path in which a person loses all the money, and the property itself, and remains indebted to the bank. The state will not be able to put up with this. And then you will have to spend tens of billions of rubles so that people do not remain homeless and in poverty.