In 2021, Russia climbed two positions in the Global Innovation Index rating of the World Intellectual Property Organization – to 45th out of the 132 counted places, generally remaining at the same positions. The Russian Federation demonstrates the best results in the development of human capital and science – 29th place. The criterion “Weakness of institutions” (including the quality of regulation and the rule of law), despite the outlined progress (67th place against last year’s 71st), continues to negatively affect the overall position of Russia in this rating.
The World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO, a specialized agency of the United Nations) has been compiling the Global Innovation Index since 2007 with a network of academic partners. In 2020, the Russian Federation was in 47th place, now it has risen to 45th, finding itself between Vietnam and India. On the whole, over the five-year period, the positions of the Russian Federation are stable and change in this interval. There are now 132 countries in the ranking.
The top three in the ranking are the same as last year: Switzerland, Sweden and the United States. The top ten is supplemented by Great Britain, South Korea, the Netherlands, Finland, Singapore, Denmark, Germany. China has also moved up two places this year to 12th. Among the countries considered in the ranking with a level of GDP per capita above the average, Russia ranked sixth (out of 34), and among European countries – 29th.
There are 81 indicators in the 2021 ranking. They are grouped into seven blocks. The results are calculated as the average of two sub-indices – innovation resources (institutions, human capital and science, infrastructure, the level of market and business development) and innovation results (development of technologies and the knowledge economy, results of creative activity). The RF traditionally ranks higher in the resource sub-index than in the results sub-index (43rd place versus 52nd). However, this year, in terms of resources, there is a slight deterioration (minus one position compared to 2020), and in terms of results, there was an increase by six positions.
In 2021, the Russian Federation improved its already good result in terms of the development of human capital and science (29th place against 30th a year earlier). The indicators of the development of institutions, despite the positive dynamics (67th place against 71st), still negatively affect the overall rating of the Russian Federation. In this block, the lowest marks were given for the criterion “Regulatory environment” (92nd place) and such components as “Rule of law” (109th place) and “Quality of regulation” (100th place).
At the same time, Russia occupies a high position in terms of generating new knowledge (scientific publications, patents) and their acquisition (rights to the results of intellectual activity, saturation of the economy with highly qualified personnel). The weak position of the Russian Federation is explained by the insufficient maturity of the framework conditions for innovation – the underdevelopment of the institutional infrastructure, the lagging behind the legislative framework in this area and the low investment activity of business.
Leonid Gokhberg, Director of the Institute for Statistical Studies and Economics of Knowledge (ISSEK), National Research University Higher School of Economics, believes that taking into account the positive shifts that have occurred in 2020 in the innovative activity of enterprises, in the amount of funding for science, the development of corporate science in Russian high-tech, as well as optimistic assessments by businesses of the activities after the pandemic, it is possible to predict a further strengthening of Russia’s positions in this ranking.