The Institute for Statistical Research and Economics of Knowledge (ISSEK) of the Higher School of Economics has studied the use of advanced production technologies (IPT) by Russian companies. Experts note a smooth growth in the technological equipment of the Russian economy over the past decade: the number of “technologically advanced” companies has increased over ten years by only 14%, to 15.1 thousand in 2020. About a quarter of industrial companies still use advanced technologies in their activities, the growth of this share is hampered by the low profitability of investments, and the share of imported technologies on the domestic market has grown by one and a half times over ten years.
The level of technological equipment of the Russian economy is slowly but growing: if in 2011, advanced production technologies (ICT) were used by 13.3 thousand organizations, then in 2020 their number increased by 14%, to 15.1 thousand, although in telecom and services, this indicator increased by 4-5 times. Such data were first presented by the ISSEK of the National Research University Higher School of Economics. At the same time, in relative terms, advanced technical solutions are still used by a little more than a quarter of organizations – 27.6% in 2020, or 15 thousand companies in the sample sorted by the OKVED classifier. For the purposes of federal statistical monitoring, advanced technologies are considered to be processes (including the equipment required for their implementation), controlled by a computer or based on microelectronics and used in the design, manufacture or processing of products.
The number of advanced technologies themselves is growing faster – in 2020, 242.9 thousand PPTs were used (an increase of 27% compared to 2011 data). The largest group of them relates to production, processing, transportation and assembly (32.8%), the most popular of them is the use of numerical control equipment (13.5%). This is followed by communications, control and geomatics technologies (25.3%), including intercompany computer networks, including extranets and electronic data interchange (7.9%). The third group is design and engineering technologies; they account for 15.4% of the APT used (mainly computer-aided design and modeling and virtual product development – 14.5%).
The share of imported technologies in the portfolio of Russian organizations is growing – over the decade it has increased from 21% to 32%. A shortage of domestic technologies is observed in the field of energy efficiency and robotics: 68.1% of the PPTs used in this group are purchased abroad. Russian developments, however, still account for two-thirds of all APTs used. According to ISSEK data, in 2020 in the Russian Federation almost 2 thousand PPTs were developed – 2.3 times more than in 2010. Russian technologies of communication, management and geomatics (64.3% of the technological support of the sector), design and engineering (58.4%), as well as production information systems (57.9%) are widely used.
Among the key factors hindering the implementation of AMT, organizations cite the difficulties in hiring personnel and their inadequate qualifications and the complexity of integrating technologies into production. Low return on investment and insufficient technological level of enterprises also do not contribute to the spread of AMP. At the same time, experts expect an increase in the number of organizations using PPT by 17% in the next three years, and for certain types of technologies – and multiple growth.