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Nuclear power plants account for just over 10% of global power generation and 28% of global low-carbon power generation. But these shares are declining, and the industry itself is going through hard times, subject to strong competitive pressure from renewable energy sources, the cost of which is decreasing. Nuclear energy is experiencing serious difficulties in attracting funding, even in the countries that support it. The world’s reactor fleet is inexorably aging, with 408 reactors in use in mid-2020 with an average age of 30.7 years. 66% of reactors in the world are over 31 years old, including 10% – 41 years old. The problem is most acute in developed countries: the average age of a reactor in the EU and the United States has exceeded 35 and 40 years, respectively. And if old reactors are actively decommissioned mainly for political reasons, then new projects face problems already for economic reasons (excess of the initial cost and delays in construction). Nevertheless, recently against the background of global trends of transition to low-carbon ….